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HIPAA: How Our Health Care World Has Changed - References

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Information on-line at the American Nurses Association’s web site

Health Privacy Records. (2005). Outlines the role of the ANA in the Consumer Coalition for Health Privacy. Retrieved March 13, 2005,

Health information privacy protection: crisis or common sense? Joanne K. Kumekawa reviews  rules, considerations for practitioners, risk management concerns, telemedicine implications, and consumer issues as they relate to health information privacy. Retrieved March 20, 2005, 

Position Statements: Privacy and Confidentiality. The American Nurses Association highlights the responsibilities of the nurse regarding the communication of relevant patient information. Retrieved April 11, 2005,

Ethics and the brave new world of e-Health. (2002). Peggy Jo Maddox correlates the use of selected technologies in healthcare and ethical questions that arise from the growing base of e-Health.  Retrieved April 19, 2005,

Notes on the Tension between Privacy and Surveillance in Nursing. (2005). M. Johnson explores four aspects of privacy related to health care and the act of nursing. Retrieved May 10, 2005,

 AdministrativeEthics and Confidentiality Privacy Issues. (1998). L. Badzek and colleagues use a case study to explore the conflicts between the individual’s right of privacy and the breach of that right. Retrieved May 10, 2005, 

Professional Organizations

Information available at professional organizations’ sites

International Organizations

Information on-line from organizations’ with a global focus

Royal College of Nurses. (2003). A look at the United Kingdoms Code of Practice on Confidentiality as it applies to the occupational health practitioner. The law is reviewed along with a number of topics including access and disclosure of confidential records. Retrieved March 13, 2005 from

The Data Protection Act. (2003). The United Kingdom enforced the Act in1999 outlining the use of data on living, identifiable persons. Retrieved on March 13, 2005 from

The Government of the United Kingdom: The Data Protection Act of 1998. (n.d.). The entire Act is available. Retrieved on March 13, 2005 from

Canadian Health Care Technology. (2004). Alberta expands it’s e-Health network providence wide. Publication reviewing the steps in rolling out the electronic health record. Retrieved May 18, 2005 from

Oxford Radcliffe Hospital: Confidentiality Guidelines: The Caldicott Report. (2003). Findings from a report commissioned by the Chief Medical Officer of England in 1997 to assess ways patient information was being used. Retrieved May 22, 2005 from

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Issues for the use of unique patient identifier in statistical collections. (2000). The National Health Information Management Group takes an in depth look at the proposition. Retrieved on May 22, 2005 from

Government Agencies

Sites related to U.S. and other Governments

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2003). This site contains summaries of key elements of the Privacy Rule by providing numerous links on a variety of topics. Retrieved March 15, 2005 from

Office of Civil Rights. (2000). Outlines the responsibilities of the department to the public related to HIPAA. Retrieved March 15, 2005 from

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2004). Contains numerous links with supportive HIPAA information regarding the implications of the act on the private citizen. Retrieved March 15, 2005 from

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services: HIPAA Administrative Simplifications. (n.d.). Outlines provisions for electronic transactions and code sets, security, identifiers, and privacy. Retrieved April 23, 2005 from

National Institutes of Health. (2004). Provides the research community information on the impact of the Privacy Rule through numerous links including slide presentations. Retrieved March 15, 2005 from

National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics. (2001). Information for Health: A Strategy for Building the National Health Information Infrastructure. Recommendations with a detailed implementation plan including references to HIPAA (p. 20). Retrieved April 14, 2005 from

CDC. (2003). HIPAA Privacy Rule and Public Health. Provides an interpretation of responsibilities dictated by the Privacy Rule for public health care agencies. Hyperlink to Office for Civil Rights containing hundreds of questions and answers. Retrieved May 19, 2005 from

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2005). CMS discloses information regarding a new identifier (National Provider Identifier, NPI) available to all health care providers. Retrieved May 22, 2005 from

Department of Health and Human Services: Unique Health Identifier for Individuals. (1998). A White Paper published by the Secretary of Health and Human Services outlining the proposals for identifiers to facilitate the electronic exchange of health information. Retrieved May 22, 2005 from

NCVHS: Unique Patient Identifier. (n.d.). A concise overview of the rationale behind the initiative for the identifier. Retrieved May 23, 2005 from

Analysis of Unique Patient Identifier Option: Final Report. (1997). S. I. Appovu gives a detailed analytical summary of options to use in health care. The NCVHS used information from this report to make recommendations to the Secretary of HHS. Retrieved May 23, 2005 from

Citizens Committee on Health Care. (1998). Contains T. Brase’s RN testimony to the NCVHS providing a nursing perspective to the unique patient identifier initiatives. Retrieved May 23, 2005 from

Educational Settings

Information generated from academic sites

The University of Maryland. (2004). iHealth: Taking Control of Personal Healthcare. Personal Health Record (PHR) Keeping. X Huang focuses on the development of the PHR in the United States. Contains hyperlinks to related sites.  Retrieved May 18, 2005 from

Harvard University. (n.d.). An overview of the act is provided along with the implications regarding research. Connecting links include risk management, protected health information, and NIH. Retrieved March 15, 2005 from

University of North Carolina: Patient Advocacy Summit. (2003). The question of good patient advocates vs. good patient systems where advocates are not needed is discussed. Sections V and XI address record keeping and technology and patient centered care. Retrieved March 22, 2005 from  


Publications on-line

The John Marshall Journal of Computer and Information Law. (1997). L. Dahm proposes the use of DNA as a personal identifier. Contains links to supporting articles. Retrieved May 23, 2005 from

The Physician’s News Digest. (1998). Do Unique Patient Identifiers Violate Patient Privacy? K. Davidson and D. L. Holtz explore the answer from a health care perspective. Retrieved May 23, 2005 from

Other Miscellaneous

Websites with supporting information

TruSecure. (2004). HIPAA Security Standards and Trusecure: Implementation Strategy and Management. Free whitepaper providing direction for compliance to HIPAA regulations. Retrieved March 13, 2005 from

HIPAAdvisory. (2004). HIPAA is Not Done. How HIPAA and New Healthcare Initiatives Intersect. R. Upham of Phoenix Healthcare Systems gives a comprehensive view of the impact of HIPAA and the developing initiatives in healthcare including the unique patient identifier. Filled with hyperlinks. Retrieved May 19, 2005 from

The Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Citizens Council on Health Care. Provides a link to review testimony from a Mayo Clinic professor to the National Committee on Vital Statistics regarding patient identifiers. Retrieved March 13, 2005 from

Health Privacy Project. (n.d.). Organization committed to raising public awareness of health privacy. Connects to six categories: About HPP, HPP 101, Federal Law, State Law, Resources, and Consumer Coalition. Retrieved March 13, 2005 from

California Health Care Foundation. (2005). Highlights California’s implementation strategies along with numerous related link connections. Retrieved March 29, 2005 from

The Health Law Resource. (1996). A summary of HIPAA as it applies to the availability of health care. Retrieved May 19, 2005 from